breast cancer

Breast cancer surgery

Most women with breast cancer are often recommended surgery as part of their treatment. There are different types of breast cancer surgery that can be performed for different reasons depending on the situation. For example, breast cancer surgery may be performed for the following reasons:-Removal of most cancers (breast preservation surgery or partial mastectomy)-Investigate whether the cancer has spread to the axillary lymph nodes (sampling the sentinel lymph nodes or dissecting the axillary lymph nodes)-Breast Reconstruction After Cancer Removal (Breast Reconstruction)-Eliminate the symptoms of advanced cancer

Breast resection in cancer

There are two types of breast augmentation surgery for cancer:

1. Breast augmentation surgery (also known as lumpectomy, quadranctomy, partial mastectomy, or segmental mastectomy) is surgery in which only the part of the breast that contains cancer is removed. The goal of this breast cancer surgery is to remove the cancer as well as some of the natural tissues around it. The amount of breast removal depends on the location and size of the tumor as well as other factors.2. A mastectomy is a surgery in which the entire breast, including all breast tissue and sometimes other adjacent tissues, is removed. There are several different types of mastectomy. Some women may also have double mastectomy, in which both breasts are removed.

Choosing between breast conserving surgery and mastectomy

Many women with early-stage cancer can choose between breast protection surgery (BCS) and mastectomy. The main advantage of breast protection surgery is that most of the breasts remain in place. But in most cases, radiation therapy will also be needed. Women who have mastectomy to treat early-stage cancer need less radiation therapy. For some women, a mastectomy may be a better option because of the type of breast cancer, the size of the tumor, previous radiation treatment, or some other factor. Some women may worry that having a minor operation may increase their risk of cancer recurrence. But more than 20 years of studies of thousands of women show that when breast augmentation surgery is performed in addition to radiation therapy, the survival and longevity of breast cancer patients is the same as that of mastectomy in people who are candidates for both types of surgery.

Surgery to remove axillary lymph nodes

To find out if breast cancer has spread to the axillary lymph nodes, one or more of these lymph nodes are removed and examined in a laboratory. This process is an important part of determining the stage (extent) of cancer. Lymph nodes may be removed as part of breast cancer surgery or as a separate operation. The two main types of surgery to remove axillary lymph nodes are: Sentinel lymph node (SLNB) sampling is a procedure in which the surgeon removes only the axillary lymph nodes where the cancer may have spread from the beginning. Removal of only one or more lymph nodes reduces the risk of postoperative complications of breast cancer or the complications of axillary lymph node dissection, such as postoperative hand swelling, also known as lymphedema. Underarm lymph node dissection (ALND) is a procedure in which a surgeon removes many axillary lymph nodes (usually less than 20). Underarm lymph node dissection is not used as often as it used to be, but in some cases it may be the best way to look at the lymph nodes.

Breast reconstruction after breast cancer surgery

Many women undergoing breast cancer surgery may be able to have breast reconstruction. A woman who has undergone mastectomy may consider breast reconstruction surgery to restore the appearance of her breast after breast cancer surgery. In some breast augmentation surgeries, a woman may want to attach fat to the damaged breast to correct the remaining recesses from the surgery. The options available for breast reconstruction vary depending on each woman’s condition. There are different types of reconstructive surgery, but your choices may depend on your medical condition and personal preferences. You may have the choice between having breast reconstruction surgery at the same time as breast cancer surgery (immediate reconstruction) or at a later time (delayed reconstruction).

If you are considering reconstructive surgery, it is best to talk to your breast surgeon and plastic surgeon before mastectomy or breast augmentation surgery. This gives the surgical team the opportunity to plan for treatment options that may be better for you, even if you wait and have reconstructive surgery later.

Breast resection in advanced cancer

Although surgery is unlikely to cure breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body, it can be helpful in some cases, either as a way to slow the spread of the cancer, or to prevent or alleviate its symptoms. it helps. For example, breast cancer surgery may be used in:

When a breast tumor causes an open sore in the breast (or chest)

To treat a small number of spread areas of cancer (metastases) in a specific part of the body, such as the brain When an area of ​​cancer is pressing on the spinal cord

To treat obstruction in the liver

To relieve pain or other symptoms

Wire localization for surgical guidance

Sometimes, if the cancer in your breast is not noticeable, difficult to detect or get, the surgeon may use mammography or ultrasound to guide a wire in the right place. This is called wire localization or needle localization. If you use mammography, you may hear the term localization of stereotactic wire. In cases where mammography or ultrasound is not successful, MRI may rarely be used.After breast anesthesia, mammography or ultrasound is used to guide a thin hollow needle into the patient. When the needle tip is in place, a thin wire is inserted through the middle of the needle. A small hook at the end of the wire secures it in place. Then the needle comes out. The surgeon uses the wire as a guide to find a part of the breast to remove.If the entire cancer is removed and the margin is negative, surgery performed as part of the wire placement may be sufficient for breast protection surgery. If cancer cells are found at the edge of the removed tissue (also called the positive or proximal edge), more surgery may be needed.It should be noted that the wire localization method is sometimes used to perform surgical sampling of a suspicious area of ​​the breast to determine if it is cancerous.